VMC’s Top Tips for Winter Horse Care
The risk of impaction colic increases as the temperatures drop and horses drink less. The average horse (1000lb) needs to drink 10-12 gallons of water per day. In winter we feed dried feeds such as grains and hay which are much lower in water content than grass. Because of this your horse is going to need to drink more water.
Keep horses’ water between 45- and 65-degrees F, provide salt, and keep waterer clean.
Lower temperatures mean additional dietary needs in order for horses to maintain adequate body temperature. Feeding more grain is not enough to keep your horse warm. Feeding additional hay increases fermentation and keeps your horse warm. The lower the temperature goes the more hay they need.
Without shelter horses can tolerate temperatures around 0 degrees F, with adequate shelter they can withstand temperatures as low as -40. Providing shelter such as a run in will help keep your horses warm, dry and comfortable for the winter.
Horses benefit from exercise in the winter, whether that is from riding or from adequate turn out. The important thing to note if riding in the winter is to be sure to adequately cool your horse down. Avoid riding in deep snow or in icy conditions.
- Hoof care
Horse hooves do grow slower in the winter but regular trims are still necessary. Regularly picking out feet is necessary as hooves are prone to packing “ice balls” and this can make it difficult and dangerous for horses to walk
Dr. Caitlin Hutcheson, BVMS
It is believed that between 50-90% of adult horses and 25-50% of foals may have gastric ulcers. In adults ulcers are more common in athletes, particularly racehorses and show horses; while in foals those that may be sick or are orphans and are fed less frequently than when they have access to the dam are at a higher risk for developing ulcers.
Why are ulcers so common in horses?
Athletes are usually fed large meals two to three times daily and stalled at least part of the day for management purposes or because of weather/bugs/etc. This management style may lead to ulcers for several reasons; a horse’s stomach is smaller than most other species and is designed to have an almost continuous intake of forage. Constant intake of forage helps to neutralize the acid that the stomach is continuously producing. Mechanical aspects of exercise can cause enough pressure in the abdomen such that parts of the stomach can be exposed to acid for prolonged periods of time. Transportation and chronic administration of NSAIDs such as bute or banamine also contribute to gastric ulcers.
What signs might a horse show if they have gastric ulcers?
The clinical signs associated with gastric ulcers can be quite extensive and include:
Not performing well
And many others
How will we diagnose ulcers?
The only way that we can diagnose gastric ulcers definitively is by performing a gastroscopy, which involves passing an endoscope into the horse’s stomach and evaluating the stomachs lining. This procedure is not invasive and is relatively easily done.
Preventing and treating ulcers
It is unlikely that the majority of us will stop riding, hauling and competing, but there are certainly steps that we can take to prevent ulcers. Free choice hay or pasture is a great way to buffer stomach acid. Reduce the amount of grain your horse is being fed and increase the forage if possible or break grain feedings into more small meals and increase the forage at each meal. Alfalfa can help reduce the risk of ulcers for those horses that may have it. Also try to limit the use of NSAIDS. There are several products on the market that may help to prevent gastric ulcers these include Purina Outlast and SmartPak SmartGut Ultra to name a few.
There is only one FDA approved treatment for gastric ulcers and that is Gastrogard, which you can get from your veterinarian after having your horse evaluated for ulcers.
In the coming weeks we will be posting articles on our Facebook page that will further delve into equine gastric ulcer syndrome.
Caitlin Hutcheson BVMS
More in depth information is available here:
Aged horses are becoming a larger portion of our country’s equine population; many of these horses are still being used for riding, showing or as companion animals. Our standard of veterinary care for this population, especially regarding vaccines, is changing due to recent research.
Just as we see with elderly people, horses experience aged related changes in immune function. This decline in immune function is known as “immunosenescence.” This population of horses is less able to resist infection and may not respond as well to vaccines. This is because immune cells in the horse may be blunted or dysregulated leaving them vulnerable to disease. We don’t know exactly why immunosenescence occurs but studies suggest that some of the immune cells become exhausted from exposure throughout the horses life, they stop replicating, and become less responsive over time. Other factors that can contribute to an impaired immune response are chronic disease, age associated inflammation, stress and nutritional status. These factors decrease the ability of the immune system to respond appropriately to vaccination, which can lead to increased incidence of disease in this age group.
So what does this mean for vaccinating older horses?
Some studies have shown that the response to some vaccines in aged horses is less robust than seen in younger horses. Vaccines are only effective if the horse’s immune system is competent and vaccine strategies may change as a horse ages and their risks change.
At VMC we want to tailor each patient’s vaccines to their individual needs using their age, exposure and other co-factors. A study published in the Journal of Equine Veterinary Science found that using a combined vaccine for West Nile and EWT (Eastern/Western Equine Encephalitis/Tetanus) caused a decreased immune response to both the West Nile vaccine as well as the EWT vaccine. Due to this research we currently recommend splitting the West Nile and EWT vaccines into two separate injections for geriatric horses rather than vaccinating with the combination West Nile/EWT vaccine.
Please don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions.
Caitlin Hutcheson, BVMS
In the last segment of our nutrition blog, I want to talk about ration or diet balancers.
In many cases, they are the perfect feed to feed our easy keepers or laminitic horses, as well as our horses on poor quality hay.
Why do I like them so much and what are they?
If the forage supplies adequate energy, horses will either maintain their weight or gain weight, and this may seem as though all of the other nutrient requirements are being met.
Unfortunately, with today’s forages this may be a false assumption. Many times, there are inadequate amounts of protein, vitamins, and minerals in the forage required for the work asked of the horse, whether it is performance, growth, or reproduction.
Easy keepers are sometimes fed lower nutritional quality hays at lower amounts to reduce calorie intake. They may need additional protein just to meet requirements.
But beyond just meeting requirements there is the issue of protein quality. Even a grass hay that provides adequate crude protein might lack adequate levels of some essential amino acids.
Ration balancers not only provide crude protein, they tend to provide guaranteed levels of the most limiting essential amino acids, such as lysine and methionine, that are vital.
The advantage of using a balancer pellet is that the horse owner can meet the horse’s requirement for protein, vitamins, and minerals.
A balancer pellet can be used three ways:
1) alone as a low-calorie source of protein, vitamins, and minerals;
2) combined with straight grains, such as oats or corn or
3) as a top-dress for a concentrate fed at less than the recommended feeding rate.
There are two different kinds of balancers: one to feed with grass diets and one to feed with alfalfa diets. This is because the nutrients are formulated to complement your horse’s diet.
If your horse consumes more than 50% of his forage in grass, pasture or grass hay, he should have the grass formula. If he consumes more than 50% of his forage in alfalfa, then he should have the alfalfa formula.
Why are they good?
- They are low calorie and low starch
- They are meant to be fed in small amounts (1-2# day).
- They have little grain content
- They have added high quality proteins such as lysine and methionine, which aren’t present in lower quality hay and pasture
- They cost more and are too expensive
- They have too much protein (Egads – 30%!!!)- my horse will get high or it will stress his kidneys
So, first the expense
A bag of balancer is going to cost around $30, while a high end sweet feed costs somewhere around $16. How can the balancer be cheaper?!?
It comes down to amounts that must be fed. Feed 2 # of balancer per day (what the label says for your horse – remember that label!), vs the 7# of feed the sweet feed bag label says. The bag of balancer will last you 25 days, the sweet feed 7 days. So, you will spend 3 times as much on the sweet feed, and be feeding your horse way more grain – not an ideal situation.
If you reduce the amount of sweet feed, yes, it will make your bag last longer, but remember that label? That feed is meant to be fed in the minimum amount on the bag. If you aren’t, you aren’t feeding a balanced diet.
Ok, how about all that protein!?!
Use a comparison in protein levels between ration balancers and performance feeds. Most performance feeds have crude protein levels around 12% and a daily recommended intake upwards of 5 pounds per day. At 5 pounds per day this would provide 0.6 pound of protein or the same as two pounds of the 30% ration balancer. In fact, performance feeds given at the upper ends of the recommended feeding levels provide far more protein a day than the ration balancer.
When should you not use a ration balancer?
- If you are feeding adequate amounts (i.e. label amounts) of a high-quality feed and forage.
- If you need more energy in the diet (to increase weight, to add more energy), you will need to add a source of calories such as fats or grains. Increasing the ration balancer does not add more calories and here is a case where more does not equal better.
When should you use one?
- Poor quality forage or hay
- Poor muscling, poor toplines
- Dieting horses (laminitic, Cushings)
- Easy keepers
- Whenever you are not feeding the given feeds according to label directions
Thank you, and let me now if you have any questions!
Dr. Elizabeth Callahan, MSOL, DVM, DACT, DABVP
How about “Natural” feeds – is this a better option for my horse?
How about non-GMO feeds?
Surely, they are better – after all, they are more natural!
Well, maybe not…
The horse’s natural diet is composed of forage and forage alone, but since we ask our modern horses to perform a variety of unnatural things, we have to provide the additional calories they need. Our grasses and pastures are on depleted soil, so the hay, grass, or pasture is not balanced in itself.
Some people seem to think feeding unprocessed grains, and non-GMO grains is better for the horse. But, generally, the advantages of feeding straight grains (without additional fortification) are few and the “non-GMO” label has to be taken with a grain of salt.
First, let’s discuss the unprocessed grain diet, i.e. “Natural”
What are cereal grains?
- Oats – Oats are palatable and easy to chew, less susceptible to mold and are considered a safe grain since starch from oats is easily digested in the small intestine. However, they don’t offer all the nutrients needed, cannot be considered a complete feed, and processed oats have a short shelf life.
- Corn – Most horses like the taste of corn. But it’s high in starch (70%), low in protein, may not be completely digestible in the small intestine in large amounts, and undigested starch can trigger colic or laminitis. Also, it molds easily if not stored properly and moldy corn can cause death in horses.
- Barley – Barley contains high energy, moderate protein and low fiber. Crude protein from barley is easier to digest than corn, and the energy is higher than oats, but barley starch has low digestibility in small intestine, and it molds easily if not stored properly.
The problem with just feeding cereal grains is that they vary widely in their nutrient profile. Some have adequate protein for a mature horse when paired with grass hay, but others do not. Cereal grains do not contain a balanced nutrient profile, and they must be paired with some type of additional fortification. A straight cereal grain diet is unsuitable for young, growing, or geriatric horses, due to the lack of the essential amino acids especially lysine and methionine.
In order to make grains digestible for the horse, they must be processed in some way such as crimping, rolling, steaming or cooking. Cereal grains also are a high starch meal. The horse’s digestive system is easily upset with high starch meals, and big swings in insulin can result, leading to insulin resistance, equine metabolic syndrome and in young horses, possible links to OCD development.
Hard keepers may not be able to take in enough calories from a cereal grain ration; the use of fats and fibers in commercial feeds allow them to condense the number of calories per pound.
Why a Concentrate?
Concentrates, or commercial feeds are formulated specifically for the needs of a horse and a certain class, type or usage. If chosen and used properly, commercial feeds represent the total nutrition package. Benefits of commercial feeds include:
- They’re uniform and consistent.
- They’re generally easy to digest.
- They have an extended shelf life.
- They guarantee a consistent intake of nutrients.
- They simplify ration balancing.
- They give the owner options for horses with problems such as poor teeth or respiratory tract disorders or poor forage availability.
How about non-GMO feeds – are they better?
Non-GMO means that the ingredients do not contain genetically modified organisms. A GMO is a plant, animal, microorganism, or other organism whose genetic makeup has been modified using recombinant DNA methods (also called gene splicing), gene modification, or transgenic technology. Virtually all the soybean crop, as well as corn, alfalfa, sugar beets, and cotton in the US is now GMO.
Certain crops grown in the U.S. are not genetically engineered, and these include oats, barley, wheat, rice, sorghum, and millet.
Unfortunately, the term “Non- GMO“ product is not federally regulated; therefore, companies are on the honor system.
- Sourcing non-GMO product is difficult and these crops are more expensive, which raises the price of the feed substantially.
- The feed is produced in mills that also use GMO products, so the feed will have residues (or more) GMO products in them.
- Some products, such as soybeans, have no non-GMO alternative. That means that soybeans are not included in non-GMO feed. Soybeans are rich in lysine, an essential amino acid. For that reason, the non-GMO feeds are not suitable for young, growing horses or broodmares, as the lysine content is too low, and the protein is made up of lesser quality amino acids.
- These feeds tend to be higher in starch and sugar, and usually are not suitable for horses with Cushings, equine metabolic syndrome, or those who are starch sensitive.
So, if you are willing to pay at least $2-$3 more per bag, and you are feeding a mature animal with no health or weight issues, the non-GMO feeds may be suitable to feed. If you don’t want to feed them, be reassured that long term studies in multiple species have shown no difference between those fed GMO and those fed non-GMO feeds…
Dr. Elizabeth Callahan
So, you’ve researched the grain company, looked at the labels and you are more confused! Which is better for my horse- the low starch and sugar feed, the high fat feed, the ration balancer, the 12%, the 10%, the organic feed? Argh – how do I choose??
Take a deep breath.
Let’s start with the most important thing, which is: What type of forage is your horse eating?
Forage is the most important part of the horse’s diet and your concentrate should complement the type of forage that you are feeding. For instance, you might have great pasture in the summer, but in the winter you are feeding so/so hay. You might need to change what concentrate you feed between the winter and summer from a higher calorie, more fortified feed to a ration balancer. A change from an alfalfa mix hay to a low-quality hay might mean a change in concentrate as well.
Does this feed meet my horse’s age and use requirements?
The feed requirements for a 10 year old pasture puff and a growing 6 month old weanling are completely different. Geriatric horses are another special population. There is no one feed that will meet the needs of all age and use, despite what you see in the ads!
Does this feed meet my horse’s metabolic needs?
Just like people, horses can vary in their individual needs for calories. We all know people who can eat all day and never gain weight and the opposite. Horses are no different. Every horse is an individual and you may need to increase the calorie content of the diet for some, and reduce it for others. Higher fat feeds supply more calories without supplying more starch and sugar, which is healthier for the horse in general.
Is the feed lower in starch and sugar?
The higher the starch and sugar (NSC), the more the risk associated with metabolic problems, such as laminitis. The NSC is especially important in feeding horses with equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, Cushings, or history of colic. Unfortunately, some manufacturers are very reluctant to share this vital piece of information. Also, just like with human foods, the definition of “low” varies from one company to another. Low doesn’t always mean low. Another thing to consider is the volume of feed that you are feeding. If the label directions are for 6# of a 12% NSC, it might actually be higher in total starch and sugar than 1.5# of a 16%NSC. Another reason to read the label and the feeding directions!
Can I feed it according to the label?
As we discussed in blog 1 and 2, if you are not feeding in the amounts on the feeding direction label, you are not supplying the horse with the minimum requirements of nutrients needed in the diet. So, feeding 1# of feed, when the minimum is 5, or feeding 20# when the maximum is 10, is not optimal for your horse. I see this all the time when people are feeding a pound of low starch feed to their 1000# horse, because he is already too fat. If you can’t feed according to the label amounts, you need to change feeds!
The take home message is that you need to take your horse’s needs into consideration when choosing a feed and you can change feeds as those needs change. It’s ok to change feeds seasonally or if the horse’s energy or growth requirements change. Just do so gradually over a period of 1-2 weeks. If you are not sure, ask your vet or contact a nutritionist. Most feed companies have nutritionists available to answer questions at no charge.
Dr. Elizabeth Callahan
Welcome to the next segment in our VMC Equine Feeding Blogs!
So now we’ve picked the right feed company. You are satisfied that you are getting quality ingredients from a horse feed specific mill. What next?
Pretty much when I ask a horse owner what they are feeding, I get the answer: “It’s a 12 % feed”. Or “I feed low starch feed. 2 scoops a day because my horse is fat”. When I show them the feed tag, people are usually really surprised to find out that they aren’t feeding the correct feed, or the correct amount.
Let’s start with basics.
The Feed Tag
Why read the feed tag?
Well, it’s pretty important. Have you read the tag on your horse’s feed and do you really know what it says?
First what IS the feed tag?
It’s that little bit of paper attached to the bag.
It tells you:
- Product name and weight
- Purpose statement identifying the type of horse intended to be fed. Checking that your feed has been specifically formulated for your class of horse is critical. For example, you would not want to feed a product designed for a “mature horse at maintenance” to a “young growing horse.”
- Guaranteed analysis of certain nutrients (required by law) – Crude Protein, Crude Fat, Crude Fiber, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Calcium, Phosphorus, Copper, Selenium, Zinc, and Vitamin A, and for feeds that include carbohydrate claims (i.e. low starch, etc.), the sugar and starch levels (when added together, the NSC or non-structural carbohydrates)
- Ingredient list – this listing may include individual ingredients such as oats or corn, or terms like “grain products”. There is NO information regarding quality of ingredients in a feed. Ingredients are required to be listed in descending order of amount present.
- Feeding directions – Horse feed manufacturers formulate feeds to be fed at a specific range of feeding rates; when a product is not fed according to the directions, the nutritional benefits of that feed won’t be met (as in the example above, if you are feeding 1 lb of a feed designed to be fed at 5 lb daily, you will not be meeting the nutritional values on the bag)
What a horse feed tag does not tell you:
- Additional nutrients needed by the horse but that aren’t required to be guaranteed
- Nutrient and ingredient quality. The percentage of protein on the bag (i.e.12%) tells you nothing about the quality of that protein. There are countless ways to blend various ingredients to make a feed with 12 % crude protein. A feed containing 12% crude protein made with high quality ingredients will supply more total protein, and more essential amino acids, to the horse than a feed made with lower quality ingredients. The same principle holds true for fat, fiber, vitamin and mineral sources. Not all ingredients are the same quality, stability or availability for the horse.
- Just because something is included, doesn’t mean the level is high enough to be meaningful or useful. Even though an ingredient is listed, it could be that just a trace amount was included (yeast cultures for example).
- Whether or not the guaranteed levels of nutrients are appropriate – when reading horse feed tag guarantees, many horse owners look for the tag with the “most” of everything listed. Sometimes more is not better. Sometimes more is just more and sometimes more is worse, possibly even toxic, as in Vitamin A.
- Quality control – Feed manufacturers have widely differing quality control standards. It’s up to the horse owner to investigate each individual manufacturer’s approach to quality control (see horse feed blog post #1)
Dr. Elizabeth Callahan
It has been a long and dreary winter that has seemingly had no end. I for one am ready for spring. The sweet smell of fresh cut grass, the chorus of peepers singing in the night, and the sense of wonder watching the bluebirds return to their birdhouse to raise their next brood; it is all just around the corner.
However, it is predictable how the seasons bring back unwelcome problems in our pets as well. The return of seasonal allergies is as anticipated and expected in many pets as the first blossom of forsythia. Many pets will start to display symptoms at the exact same time each year. There are quite a few options available to relieve allergy suffering in pets. Dogs will often manifest seasonal allergies, also called atopy, with itching. Very often licking, biting and chewing of the feet marks the beginning of signs. Redness, inflammation and irritation between the toes can lead to painful infections and continued self trauma leading to lameness and lethargy. Identifying the symptoms early and talking with your veterinarian about what treatment options would be best for your pet will help prevent this condition from escalating to a vicious cycle of constant chewing and scratching, chronic swelling and inflammation, and help to relieve the suffering of this unwelcome springtime guest.
Dr. Dean Tyson
By Dr. Casey Beck
I’d like to say it was my first year of veterinary school but I’ll be honest and admit I was actually a second year veterinary student when this event occurred. Like any good veterinary technician (now working her way through vet school) I had already seen and learned a lot about the profession and all the different types of cases that come through the doors, especially since my experience was mostly obtained in the emergency clinic near my undergraduate college.
Like most vet students I acquired a very sweet and happy 1 year old mixed breed dog during my first year of study in the Caribbean. These dogs were fondly called “island dogs” in Grenada and were known for being robust, healthy and sturdy companions. He was of course still a puppy and very good at chewing up or taking apart almost anything in my apartment. Through long hours of study he often would distract me by eating a pair of headphones or barking incessantly at the feral cats outside running through our yard. This particular day when I heard him making a strange noise from the living room I was sure he had yet again gotten into something or torn apart my favorite pair of running shoes.
When I entered the living room I was surprised to find that nothing had actually been destroyed but rather my adorable little guy seemed to be struggling to breathe, coughing and gagging like something was stuck in his throat! I immediately yelled to my medical school boyfriend at the time, “Quick, quick, help! Carib is choking!!” I was so worried I believe I was actually shaking! I frantically tried to think of what to do and who to call when my boyfriend entered the room, calmly staring at my hacking dog and said, “You know, I bet he just has kennel cough”.
Now I hate to admit this, especially since my boyfriend and I were in constant debate about whose profession was more challenging and interesting, but he unfortunately was right. Carib had acquired kennel cough, (infectious tracheobronchitis), from the neighbor’s puppy. This particular playmate was just diagnosed with kennel cough the week prior. D’uh!! Slap on the head. So much for being the straight-A, very knowledgeable veterinary student!
Like my concerned pet owners that I see every day, I experienced firsthand that rush of distress and fear that my pet was sick and I needed to get him help. I felt helpless. No matter if the problem is life threatening or more subtly just a minor concern, as veterinarians we can honestly always understand our pet owners stress and concern when they don’t know if their pets are seriously sick or not. As always, it’s better to have us tell you “it’s nothing to worry about” than to hear us say “we wish we had seen your pet sooner.” Though I do have to admit, I still probably would not ask a medical student boyfriend his opinion on the matter!
“So overall your pet’s physical exam is normal. He looks great! Let’s start brushing his teeth on a daily basis, this will help prevent tartar and plaque from forming on your pet’s teeth and keep his oral cavity happy and healthy!”
When I first started practicing at Veterinary Medical Center, I would probably say this (enthusiastically, no less) several times a day to most owners I would see, and why not? I brushed my dog’s teeth every day. It was easy, a five minute part of my day that both my dog, Jovie, and I looked forward to. But as time went on I noticed a trend. Each time I said it, I would get very different responses. Many clients would give me the big “are you kidding me” eyes. Others would say they’d try, but were realistic and said maybe they could aim for once a week. The most honest of the bunch would tell me there’s no chance of getting a toothbrush into their pet’s mouth, so let’s just schedule him for a dental cleaning every year. I appreciated all answers as I realized everyone had different schedules, different comfort levels with their pets, and of course each animal’s temperament would dictate what type of at home oral care was possible.
Then I had a baby.
Of course I had time for my first baby, my beloved dog, but it was different. Most of our time together was now shared with a child. Sleep was always a precious commodity, so I would say, “Don’t worry Jovie; I’ll make sure we brush your teeth after I take a nap.” And we would nap together, get up together, take care of the baby and no teeth were brushed. I promised that tomorrow I’d get the toothbrush and chicken-flavored toothpaste, and about half the time I kept my word. Jovie’s teeth still looked healthy; I thought an every other day regimen was a good compromise.
Days turned into weeks and weeks into months. A second baby came. I really had good intentions. Naps were a thing of the past for both of us; we were on the go looking after two little ones. Oral care for my fur baby was not always on my radar screen, but I still did a respectable one-time-per-week brushing. I started buying dental chews and gave one to Jovie on the days I didn’t brush, after-all they are a great way to keep bacteria from sticking to the tooth surface (I would reassure myself).
Then it happened. Surprise! A third baby was on his way. Sleep was at an all-time low, and I don’t think Jovie’s toothbrush even made it out of our bathroom drawer for a few months! During a moment of quiet, when Jovie and I had some time to just sit together, I lifted her upper lip. I thought back to a time of yester-year when those pearly whites got brushed religiously, when I instructed clients on how to perform the simple task, and was honest with them when I said, “why yes, I brush my dog’s teeth every day.”
Nowadays, sleep has become a little more regular, and so has giving Jovie’s teeth a good scrub. She probably will need a dental cleaning in the future, but she’s survived the baby years just like the rest of us. I will get back to brushing her teeth daily one day, or even better, I’ll delegate the job to an eager child who loves their dog!
Please review the link on our website for a short video on how to train your pet to love having a daily tooth brushing!
Don’t forget February is National Dental Health Month!
Mention you read this blog and get a $25.00 discount on your pet’s dentistry service scheduled through February 28 2015!