Category Archives: Veterinarian

Farm Animal Basics

One of my greatest joys so far in this job has been helping hobby farmers with their herds and flocks. I love working with these clients because they have so much love for their animals and want to know as much information as possible about health and welfare. I really enjoy listening to our clients’ goals for their animals and then providing support for any problems that come up.

The first thing I do when I meet a new client is get to know their housing, nutrition, and preventative medicine plan. I wanted to provide my typical “spiel” in a public place so everyone has access to the basics. You can give us a call to schedule a farm visit for a consultation during which we can advise on all the following subjects as they relate to your animals and your needs.

Housing

Orthopedic or lameness problems are common issues for farm animals. Instances of injury, arthritis, foot rot, or bumble-foot can be minimized by good, safe housing. Individual results may vary – lambs and kids are pretty wily and even the best fencing or barn siding can cause injury…

Sheep and goats need good sturdy fencing that is escape-proof. There should be no nails or wire jutting out that could cause injury and tetanus infection. Fill in “ankle-breaker” holes as they appear to keep the pasture nice and level.

Bedding in barns or coops should be cleaned regularly to decrease risk of parasitism and infectious disease, and to improve hygiene. Preferred type and depth of bedding varies by species but overall rules are: avoid potentially harmful substances, avoid substances that give off lots of fumes in enclosed housing, and keep depth somewhat thick to provide ample cushion.

Predators are managed differently for the species as well. Hens can be entirely protected by housing if they are enclosed on all sides in their coop/run (roof included! Ground level predators are not the only things that will try and get at your flock). Many of our clients will free-range their hens so if you choose to do that, I recommend locking them up at night when you are not watching them. Dog bite wounds are common reasons for hens to visit us for urgent care – please ensure your dogs do not think your small farm animals are for them to chase.

Nutrition

Feed is never a one size fits all. You shouldn’t feed your layer flock feed for meat birds nor should you feed your dairy goats feed that isn’t specifically for goats. Protein, fiber, macro and micro minerals, and caloric needs are different for each species and each “job” an animal might perform. Some animals are what I call “unemployed” and need very little or no grain besides good pasture, a nice grass hay, and a mineral block or mix.  Wethers or bucks that aren’t breeding are a great example of “unemployed” animals and can actually suffer negative consequences if fed too much grain. Since they are getting more calories than they need they are at a higher risk of developing urinary stones and becoming blocked (not being able to urinate) as well as obesity leading to orthopedic problems.

Mixing scratch and pellets for hens can lead to malnutrition because they may preferentially eat the yummy scratch over their balanced pellets. This is problematic because scratch doesn’t provide balanced nutrition and they will often fill up on scratch and not eat their complete feed. Over time you will see the negative effects of malnutrition.

Preventive medicine

Yearly physicals are very important for us so we can compare the individual animal’s health from year to year. That wellness exam time is a perfect opportunity to correct any issues and hopefully prevent any avoidable emergency visits.

We will be checking FAMACHA scores on all sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas that we see, and teaching you that skill if you don’t already feel comfortable. FAMACHA is a scale that was developed to estimate levels of anemia (red blood cell levels) which is a good indicator of how heavily parasitized a sheep, goat, llama, or alpaca is by pole worms, or Haemonchus contortus. This assessment will help your vet advise you on a deworming protocol for your herd.

I really really strongly advise against deworming every animal in your hobby farm on a regular basis without consulting a vet. There is a large amount of resistance to our traditional dewormers and frequent deworming without a protocol contributes to this problem. The bottom line: if there is resistance to dewormer(s) in your herd, it will be near impossible for me to help you treat a heavily parasitized animal when it comes time. By that point, the stakes may be life or death. Besides FAMACHA there are several other measures including regular and specialized fecal testing as well as management tools you can use to decrease parasite burden for your herd. Our large animal vets will help you develop a plan specific to the land and resources you have available.

Chickens also suffer from internal and external parasites. Good housing, hygiene, fecal testing as needed, and physical exams will help reduce the risk of heavy parasitism in your flock.

Other parts of the wellness visit include some combination of hoof trims, disbudding, castration, and vaccinations. Adult sheep, goats, llamas and alpacas should get yearly vaccines if appropriate. If you are breeding we may recommend boostering the females before giving birth as well as several boosters for the babies. Rabies should be given once yearly and can only be administered by a veterinarian. Other vaccinations are risk-based and a veterinarian can advise you on their use if necessary.

Give us a call to discuss your animals needs and we can schedule a farm visit consult or physicals on any animals of concern to help you maximize their quality of life as well as help you achieve your farm goals!

Dr. Eliana Greissworth,  DVM

What I (re)Learned During My Corona-cation

The sore throat and cough started right at the beginning of the pandemic.  Most of the sleepless night was spent assessing if I was having trouble breathing.  No doubt I acquired the virus traveling across the Midwest, contracted at some rest area in Ohio.  It had to be Ohio, the state that never ends.  Surely not my beloved Chicago or Madison could harbor such a nasty germ.

Thankfully I stockpiled Zicam, Airborne, Tylenol and throat lozenges.  By morning I decided it was just a cold and would be back to life and work in no time.  Ten days and ten fitful night sleeps later, the sore throat and cough persisted.  Wellness and daily life seem a distant memory.  What was initially a fun hiatus at home was getting stale. You can only enjoy so many Coronavirus toilet paper memes, and review so many graphs on impending doom.  Depression sets in, especially when looking at the endless to-do list, full of projects that require energy and stamina.

What now?

Perhaps the best way thru this was to focus on the positive, count my blessings, etc. etc.  I turned to the internet looking for guidance, but reading inspirational quotes online was not very uplifting. It felt counterfeit, and actually had the opposite effect on me.  Especially when I couldn’t be doing what I do best, medicine, pets and people.  I started feeling guilty about being home, when everyone else was struggling.  I missed my work family terribly. But it wasn’t rocket science to know being on the front lines coughing was never going to happen.

Plan B.

Accept the facts. Figure out what was enjoyable in this new Emily Dickensonian apocalyptic world.  I discovered with this extra time off, there were a few things missing in my old life.  I now have new favorite things, which I may be reluctant to give up once I do stop coughing.

  1. The power of daily naps – nothing beats a 2-hour nap in your own bed on a sunny afternoon.
  2. Reading- a book! Not just the newspaper or journals or social media. An actual book!
  3. Television is actually pretty boring.
  4. Hot, hot long showers before bed.
  5. Breakfast. What a fun meal, who knew?
  6. Eating meals together as a family at the dining table.
  7. Board games can be fun, and I can still hold my own at scrabble.
  8. I do love a clean house.
  9. There is nothing wrong with sitting and thinking, or not thinking, just musing.
  10. Life is good, to quote fatheur.

Dr. Elizabeth Bruce

VMC’s Top Tips for Winter Horse Care

VMC’s Top Tips for Winter Horse Care

  1. Water

The risk of impaction colic increases as the temperatures drop and horses drink less. The average horse (1000lb) needs to drink 10-12 gallons of water per day. In winter we feed dried feeds such as grains and hay which are much lower in water content than grass.  Because of this your horse is going to need to drink more water.

Keep horses’ water between 45- and 65-degrees F, provide salt, and keep waterer clean.

  1. Feeding

Lower temperatures mean additional dietary needs in order for horses to maintain adequate body temperature. Feeding more grain is not enough to keep your horse warm. Feeding additional hay increases fermentation and keeps your horse warm. The lower the temperature goes the more hay they need.

  1. Shelter

Without shelter horses can tolerate temperatures around 0 degrees F, with adequate shelter they can withstand temperatures as low as -40. Providing shelter such as a run in will help keep your horses warm, dry and comfortable for the winter.

  1. Exercise

Horses benefit from exercise in the winter, whether that is from riding or from adequate turn out. The important thing to note if riding in the winter is to be sure to adequately cool your horse down. Avoid riding in deep snow or in icy conditions.

  1. Hoof care

Horse hooves do grow slower in the winter but regular trims are still necessary.  Regularly picking out feet is necessary as hooves are prone to packing “ice balls” and this can make it difficult and dangerous for horses to walk

Dr. Caitlin Hutcheson, BVMS

Equine Gastric Ulcers

It is believed that between 50-90% of adult horses and 25-50% of foals may have gastric ulcers. In adults ulcers are more common in athletes, particularly racehorses and show horses; while in foals those that may be sick or are orphans and are fed less frequently than when they have access to the dam are at a higher risk for developing ulcers.

Why are ulcers so common in horses?
Athletes are usually fed large meals two to three times daily and stalled at least part of the day for management purposes or because of weather/bugs/etc. This management style may lead to ulcers for several reasons; a horse’s stomach is smaller than most other species and is designed to have an almost continuous intake of forage. Constant intake of forage helps to neutralize the acid that the stomach is continuously producing. Mechanical aspects of exercise can cause enough pressure in the abdomen such that parts of the stomach can be exposed to acid for prolonged periods of time. Transportation and chronic administration of NSAIDs such as bute or banamine also contribute to gastric ulcers.

What signs might a horse show if they have gastric ulcers?
The clinical signs associated with gastric ulcers can be quite extensive and include:
Poor appetite
Attitude changes
Not performing well
Intermittent colic
Grinding teeth
Acting “cinchy”
Weight loss
Loose manure
And many others

How will we diagnose ulcers?
The only way that we can diagnose gastric ulcers definitively is by performing a gastroscopy, which involves passing an endoscope into the horse’s stomach and evaluating the stomachs lining. This procedure is not invasive and is relatively easily done.

Preventing and treating ulcers
It is unlikely that the majority of us will stop riding, hauling and competing, but there are certainly steps that we can take to prevent ulcers. Free choice hay or pasture is a great way to buffer stomach acid. Reduce the amount of grain your horse is being fed and increase the forage if possible or break grain feedings into more small meals and increase the forage at each meal. Alfalfa can help reduce the risk of ulcers for those horses that may have it. Also try to limit the use of NSAIDS. There are several products on the market that may help to prevent gastric ulcers these include Purina Outlast and SmartPak SmartGut Ultra to name a few.
There is only one FDA approved treatment for gastric ulcers and that is Gastrogard, which you can get from your veterinarian after having your horse evaluated for ulcers.

In the coming weeks we will be posting articles on our Facebook page that will further delve into equine gastric ulcer syndrome.

Caitlin Hutcheson BVMS

 

More in depth information is available here:

https://aaep.org/horsehealth/equine-gastric-ulcer-syndrome?fbclid=IwAR3J-TRO5uAzT3x_COtIeAm3YpyOHQTTcL6pcSBCQ9jLVsE0Iy8HolYyHMw

 

Why you should look a gift horse in the mouth

They say “you should never look a gift horse in the mouth,” but you should definitely have your vet take a look.   There is a lot of valuable information that you can gain  about a horse from looking at its teeth and the inside of its mouth.

Why worry about dental care for my horse?

It is important to have your veterinarian be involved in your horse’s dental care from the time they are young through their adult life. Horse’s teeth are hypsodont meaning that they continuously erupt throughout their life.  Horses only get one set of teeth, and these days many horses are living well into their 30s, so quality dental care is extremely important.  As the teeth erupt and the horse chews its food, over time the teeth can develop sharp points, teeth can become loose or fall out and other teeth can over grow or erupt incorrectly, potentially causing some major issues. Many malocclusions, or misalignment of teeth, can start when the horse is very young even as early as about two and a half years old when the horse’s permanent teeth begin erupting. This is why it is so important to have your veterinarian involved in the oral care of your horse. Over the lifetime of the horse these malocclusions can cause major problems. If we catch them when the horse is young, we are better able to correct or manage the problem.

What does “comprehensive oral exam” mean?

We start by performing a thorough physical exam on your horse to evaluate overall health and determine if it is safe to give the horse a light sedative. Sedation is used to help relax the horse and its strong jaw muscles and allows us to place a speculum in the mouth. Warm water is used to rinse the mouth to remove left over feed and hay so that we can better visualize the oral cavity. We look for signs of inflammation, ulcers, foreign bodies and wounds.  Each tooth is examined and palpated to determine if there are any malocclusions, missing or loose/fractured teeth or periodontal disease.

After evaluating the horse’s mouth, your veterinarian will explain their findings and make a plan with you based on these findings and recommend future exams and the need for floating. In most cases a routine float will be performed, in other cases more advanced work will be necessary. It is even possible that no action at all needs to be taken. It is important to note that not all conditions can be corrected in one visit.

Why should I have my vet perform dental exams and floating and not an equine dentist?

            Many equine dentists do have a degree of training; however, they are not licensed veterinarians so they are unfortunately not held to the same standard of care or of liability.  If there are any concerns from the owner about what was done, the quality of the work or the outcome, there may be little recourse as there are no governing bodies for lay dentists at this time. Legally, only veterinarians can administer sedation, diagnose, create a treatment plan and oversee it.  It is important for horse owners to be educated on this issue to make the best decisions on who you choose to have work with you and your horse in all aspects of their health care.

Dr. Caitlin Hutcheson, BVMS

For more detailed information please visit

https://aaep.org/horsehealth/equine-dental-care-what-every-horse-owner-should-know

Photo credit: Kirsten Jackson of Dental Vet

 

Photo Credit:  Caitlin Hutcheson, BVMS, of Veterinary Medical Center

Vaccinating the Geriatric Horse

Aged horses are becoming a larger portion of our country’s equine population; many of these horses are still being used for riding, showing or as companion animals.  Our standard of veterinary care for this population, especially regarding vaccines, is changing due to recent research.

            Just as we see with elderly people, horses experience aged related changes in immune function. This decline in immune function is known as “immunosenescence.” This population of horses is less able to resist infection and may not respond as well to vaccines. This is because immune cells in the horse may be blunted or dysregulated leaving them vulnerable to disease. We don’t know exactly why immunosenescence occurs but studies suggest that some of the immune cells become exhausted from exposure throughout the horses life, they stop replicating, and become less responsive over time. Other factors that can contribute to an impaired immune response are chronic disease, age associated inflammation, stress and nutritional status. These factors decrease the ability of the immune system to respond appropriately to vaccination, which can lead to increased incidence of disease in this age group.

So what does this mean for vaccinating older horses?

            Some studies have shown that the response to some vaccines in aged horses is less robust than seen in younger horses. Vaccines are only effective if the horse’s immune system is competent and vaccine strategies may change as a horse ages and their risks change.

            At VMC we want to tailor each patient’s vaccines to their individual needs using their age, exposure and other co-factors. A study published in the Journal of Equine Veterinary Science found that using a combined vaccine for West Nile and EWT (Eastern/Western Equine Encephalitis/Tetanus) caused a decreased immune response to both the West Nile vaccine as well as the EWT vaccine. Due to this research we currently recommend splitting the West Nile and EWT vaccines into two separate injections for geriatric horses rather than vaccinating with the combination West Nile/EWT vaccine. 

 Please don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions.

Caitlin Hutcheson, BVMS

The VMC Equine Feeding Blogs – Part 1

I see a lot of horses, and I see a lot of owners who want to make sure their horses are being fed well. However, I also see a lot of confusion as to what my horse SHOULD be eating, and a lot of incorrect assumptions.  For this reason, I will be presenting a series of blogs on equine feeding. If you have questions please email me at drcallahan@vmceaston.com.

How do I pick the right feed company?

Selecting the right feeds for your horses can be a time consuming and often confusing task. There are multiple options – low starch, high performance, mare and foal, ration balancer, high fat… It makes your head spin!  And the manufacturers, the list seems endless…

To help to narrow down your choices, here is a checklist you can use to help find companies that make high quality, safe, and consistent horse feeds.

Horse dedicated manufacturer

Only a handful of feed manufacturers run a horse dedicated mill. Being horse dedicated means that the risk of anything that could be harmful or even deadly to horses like ionophores (monensin), or antibiotics is eliminated. IF a feed isn’t coming out of a horse dedicated manufacturing facility it is immediately put onto my ‘no’ list. There have been catastrophic mix ups in mixed species mills that have resulted in the deaths of many horses over the years so it just isn’t worth the risk. Choose ones that have dedicated mills.

Set recipes for feeds

There are two main ways a feed can be formulated and made. These are:

  • Least cost mixing, where the energy, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of the feed are set but the manufacturer can choose from any number of ingredients at hand to make up the feed at least cost to them; or
  • The use of set recipes where the energy, protein, vitamin and mineral levels AND the exact ingredients used are never changed.

To work out which method your feeds are currently being made by look at the ingredients list. Feeds made by least cost will have a statement something like ‘Ingredients selected from’ or ‘contains grains including…’ or they will list obscure ingredients like ‘vegetable protein meals’ which can be anything. Because of the way they are made, least cost feeds can have widely varying protein quality and starch contents from batch to batch which is not ideal for horses.

Choosing products from companies that make feeds using set recipes guarantees you a more consistent, higher quality product.

Protein quality and quantity

The quality of protein used in a feed is a major determinant of how well a horse does on that feed. Look for feeds that list high quality protein sources in the ingredients with soybean meal and full fat soybean being the most desirable followed by cottonseed meal, linseed meal (not linseed oil), brewers grains, distillers grains, alfalfa, and corn gluten. When choosing feeds, ask your manufacturer if they run any sort of testing for protein and what their protocol is for ingredients and feeds that don’t make the grade.

Independent laboratory testing

A company can write anything they like on their feed label with regards to the analysis of the feed. While most companies do a good job of this, some don’t, so it is a good idea to ask if the company regularly has its feeds tested by an independent laboratory to verify the contents of its horse feed. These results should also be made readily available to you on request if you wish to see them.

Further, horse feeds contain a high percentage of mineral ingredients including limestone, calcium phosphates and trace mineral premixes. These raw materials can be contaminated with heavy metals like lead, cadmium and mercury so it is also worth asking whether your feed manufacturer tests raw materials and their finished feeds for heavy metals. Their answer should be yes and they should have strict guidelines controlling their maximum allowed heavy metal levels.

 

While there are many other considerations when selecting horse feeds including cost, level of customer service and how well a feed fits your purpose, using the four criteria discussed above will help to narrow down your choices from 60+ companies to just a handful. Once you have your shortlist you can then move on to the finer points for the final selection of feeds for your horses.

That will be in our next blog… Stay tuned!

Dr. Elizabeth Callahan

A Verklempt Moment

It’s funny the things that impress you when you’re young, or at least uninitiated.  I was a barn rat in middle school and high school and I especially loved to be at the stable when the veterinarian was there. Over the years, I watched veterinarians draw blood, administer vaccines, float teeth, and perform pregnancy checks. I watched them treat colicky foals and suture up lacerations. I marveled at the veterinarian’s calm and confident manner as she came and went from her well-supplied vet truck, discussed cases with my trainer, and wrote prescriptions in her neat handwriting. But, somehow, the skill that really awed me was my vet’s ability to firmly and easily stick her forefinger and thumb into the creases of my pony’s eyelids and hold that eye wide open for evaluation and treatment. I couldn’t for the life of me imagine being able to do that myself.

Cut to the present day, sometime around this past Thanksgiving. I am alone in the practice’s vet truck, driving back from a barn. It is dusk and the scene is beautiful, with muted greens and blues and purples spread across the fields and the sky. Christmas music plays on the radio. I am returning from a call to see a horse that had come in from the field with one of his eyes swollen shut. During the appointment, I had done a complete physical exam, then diagnosed a painful scratch on the horse’s eyeball and prescribed treatment.

Driving along, humming to the music, and savoring the view, I suddenly become teary-eyed as a strong current of emotion runs through me.  I think about my middle school self, watching the vet work on my pony, and I think about what I just did for my own equine patient: I firmly and easily stuck my forefinger and thumb into the creases of the horse’s eyelids and held that eye wide open for evaluation and treatment. Not only that – I then discussed my treatment plan with the owner, calmly and confidently climbed into my well-supplied vet truck, and drove away into the sunset.  As I drive, the emotions that are tugging at me are a mixture of nostalgia, contentment, and gratitude. I think about how lucky I am to have become the person that I once dreamed of being.

If only middle school me could see me now.

Dr. Katie Spillane

Six degrees of separation: what okra and worms have in common

It was meant to be an idyllic vacation in sunny southwest Florida. We – husband and I, left pets and the Pennsylvania winter behind for a week of fishing the mangrove flats.  Days and nights were all blissfully the same.  Days consisted of breakfast (coffee, grits) and fishing all day (the fish gods were with us, plentiful redfish, snook and perch).  Evenings started with cocktail hour (pickled okra and tonic drinks), and finished off with a delectable filet of that day’s catch.  The weather was sunny, humid and breezy, the smells of Florida such a welcome change to concrete rooms and exhaust fumes.  The stresses of vet school and living in the busy city quickly faded to a dim memory.

Until……

One morning the husband seemed pretty blue.  Didn’t even finish his grits.  It was unnerving.  Before I could ask- whatsa matta with ya? He leaned across the table and softly whispered words no one could imagine:

“Lizzie, I think I have worms”

WORMS??

A miserable semester of parasitology came barging back from my altered reality.  What kind of worms?  Nematodes? Flukes?  We had been eating fish, maybe we didn’t cook it enough.  I asked all the questions an enthusiastic over-achieving doctor should ask: does it itch?  Burn? What do they look like? Are they wiggling or egg like? Flat or round?  I continued to describe every type of internal parasite I could remember. I even got to say “maybe you have macrocantharincus hirudinacious,” which I knew was impossible because it is a pig worm, but I just love to say the word and I wanted to sound smart and scary.

The husband was not impressed and wondered if he should go to the doctor.

“You mean not go fishing today??” I squealed and wailed.

That was not ok with me. Leave it to the husband to ruin a perfectly good vacation by getting worms. Now it was time to think rationally and save the day.

“It’s a weekend and there is no way we are going to get this fixed today. You have no symptoms, so let’s go fishing and worry about this next week”.  Reluctantly he acquiesced.

In a few hours our worries were forgotten in the summer sun and sparkling blue water.  The okra and tonic drinks were delicious. Maybe it was a bad dream.

Until the next morning.

As a scientist, I have insatiable curiosity….

I wonder if I have worms too?  Won’t hurt to check…….

The litany of cuss words from the bathroom could be heard next door.

#**¥*#. “I have the worms too!”  ##%**€#

The husband tried to calm me, but this was serious. And all his fault. He got them first. So we did what any parasite infested person on vacation would do: went fishing.

 

Cocktail hour arrived too soon. I was afraid to go to the bathroom. So far no serious symptoms. Maybe the tonic drinks would kill the interlopers…

The husband took a bite of his umpteenth pickled okra. The broad smile on his face and chortle shocked me. “What do you have to be so happy about?”

He showed me the guts of his okra: it had worms too!!!

 

Vets are People Too!

Hello everyone! I am so happy to have joined such a great practice and I am enjoying living on the Bay with my husband and our dog Chief, a lab mix who is the perfect dog; as long as you don’t leave bread on the counter, a full trash can, let him socialize (read fight) with other dogs…OK he’s not perfect but we love him anyway! We’ve wandered the Eastern Shore, eaten crab cakes and even have some Old Bay in our pantry. Chief had his own plans of welcoming us to the area however. Just a few short weeks after moving we woke up at 4 o clock in the morning to him suddenly being so congested that he could not breathe through his nose and was opening his mouth with every breath. All I had on hand was some allergy medication and a pain medication which helped him some but he was still quite miserable a few hours later, necessitating a trip to VMC, on one of my first days off since starting work of course!

As anybody who lives with a veterinarian can attest to, we love our work and can do so many different types of procedures on many species, but ask us to do a physical exam on our own dogs and we absolutely quiver with fear! Our own Dr. Bruce was kind enough to fit us into her busy schedule and worked with us over the next few weeks as we tried to get Chief sorted out. We tried stronger allergy medicine, stronger pain medicine, two different antibiotics but nothing helped. We finally came down to the decision of having to pursue further diagnostics under general anesthesia, a fact which I had been trying to avoid.

All of the same questions run through our heads as it would yours. Do I want to accept the risks of general anesthesia? Do I want to know if there is cancer present? What if we go through all this and it doesn’t work, if he doesn’t feel better? Then what? But, as happens most of the time, my worries were laid to rest. We were as prepared as we could be. Clean pre-operative bloodwork, clean pre-operative chest x-rays and an excellent team in place. Dr. Bruce and our wonderful technical staff babied Chief as if they were his own, and kicked me out of the surgery suite so I couldn’t stand there and worry. His x-rays came back clean, he had his nasal passages flushed,  had a mass removed and, as a  bonus, got his teeth cleaned. He has been feeling and breathing great ever since! He must have just wanted me to get familiar with the hospital and the excellent team that works here.

I wanted to share this story so that everyone would know, just because we have this knowledge, these skills, and the white coat does not mean we don’t share your fears and know exactly how you feel when we ask you to trust us with your beloved pets. Don’t be afraid to tell us you are worried. Don’t be afraid to ask for more information. We will do everything we can to make you comfortable and make sure your pet is as prepared as they can be for their road ahead in hopes of the best outcome possible! I look forward to meeting everyone and their pets and becoming a part of this wonderful community!

Rebecca Bacon, DVM